A Census of Ireland, Circa 1659. With Supplementary Material from the Poll Money Ordinances (1660-1661). Dublin: Government Publ., 1939. Large 8vo. Pp Xix, 946. With index of Persons, and Places. Publisher's red cloth, title lettered in gilt to spine. Light shelf-wear otherwise a near fine copy. The so-called ‘1659 Census’ provides a unique vista of Ireland at one of the most pivotal points in Irish political and cultural history. In his detailed introduction Pender describes the discovery of what has become known as 'The Census of Ireland (1659)' by W.H. Harding in manuscript material held in Lansdowne House, London in 1864 (now in the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin). Harding presented his findings in a paper read before the RIA entitled "Observations on the earliest known Manuscript Census Returns of the People of Ireland." They comprise returns for most of the counties of Ireland, except for the following: Cavan, Galway, Mayo, Tyrone and Wicklow, Cork County (incomplete, missing 4 baronies) Meath County (incomplete, missing 9 baronies). For those counties listed it records the specific numerical importance of each family name classified as ‘Irish’ or 'English' from the most numerous down to the family names which were enumerated at least five times in the poll-tax barony lists.